Due to its hard and waxy covering, the grains need to be processed by cracking, rolling, or grinding. The nuts are valued for their highly nutritious starch content, dietary fiber and carbohydrate mono, di and polysaccharides. The warm and humidconditions provide a favorable environment for the growth of the molds and production of toxins both in field and storage Suleiman et al. Malt caramel from the nuts of Cyperus esculentus. It was shown that maize grain for example is contaminated by Fusarium sp. Field fungi do not compete well under normal and dry storage conditions, but may grow extensively in improperly preserved maize at high moisture Meronuck,

Other factors include insects, rodents or pests presents in the environment during the preparation, temperature, time and light. The worst effect of DON toxicity in human depends on the extent of contamination in the food ingested. Gert, but grains are always harvested during the rainy season, a best period for yeast and mould which favors contamination by fungi and subsequent mycotoxin contamination. A sample of kunun zaki with no addition of tigernut milk served as control KN Incidence of aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes and ochratoxins in Nigerian foods and possible intervention strategies. Literature Review Literature review ini disusun berdasarkan metode menggunakan data yang diperoleh dari hasil pencarian beberapa sumber Review of Literature.

Literature review on kunun zaki

The occurrence of the wide generation of mycotoxigenic fungi could be attributed to the unhygenic condition of preparation and the use of contaminated raw materials and utensils Ayo et al.

Regulatory limits are rarely in place or not properly implemented due to improper testing equipment, no monitoring and surveillance system in place, and poor management ounu grains and oilseeds Wild and Gong, ; Wu and Guclu, Robert, Kunu is a popular cereal based, non-alcoholic beverage Adejuyitan et al. Furthermore, mycotoxins can occur both in temperate and tropical regions of the world.

Other Aspergillus metabolites 3- Nitropopionic acid and Nigragilin has more occurrence in the samples, 3- Nitropopionic acid has a mean value of 1. In addition, the LC retention time and the intensity ratio of the two MRM transitions agreed with the related values of an authentic standard within 0.


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The production of mycotoxins depends on various factors, such as the commodity, poor agricultural and harvesting practices, improper drying, handling, storage conditions, climatic conditions and seasonal variations Marin et al.

ZEA is renowned for its detrimental effect to the urogenital system in animal species as well as neuroendocrine disruption by binding to estrogen receptors Richard, The homogenous slurry was filtered using a muslin cloth and the resultant filtrate was tigernut milk Fig.

Statistical analysis Data which depended on different percentages of kunun zaki and tigernut milk extract were analyzed according to a completely randomized design with three replicates. They were mixed in respective percentages of Moreover, Belewu and Abodunrin recorded a pH reviea about 6 which is also similar to those recorded in the present study. This study was therefore undertaken to incorporate tigernut milk extract into the beverage for possible nutritional improvement.

Crop plant resource, 2.

literature review of kunu zaki

The occurrence of Literafure metabolites was high; Moniliform was found in three samples with KSD zone having the highest value of 4. This email address is being protected from spambots.

BEN is a fatal chronic kidney disease affecting rural populations, in Romania, Bulgaria, and the former Yugoslavia Schwartz, The low values of microbial counts recorded in the kunun zaki samples could be due to heat treatment pasteurization given to the products during production.

Higher values of the minerals recorded in this study than those reported in other studies could obviously be attributed to the incorporation of TME into the kunun zaki beverage.

Nigeria is a temperate climatic region where hot sunny weather often changes into colder thundery weather during the harvest July—August period; these climatic variances support the growth of several kinds of microscopic fungi. Tigernuts Cyperus esculentus are cultivated throughout the world including Nigeria, especially in the northern part, and other West Africa Countries like Guinea, Cote d’ivore, Cameroon, Senegal, America and other parts of the World Belewu and Abodunrin Fungal colonies were isolated using a sterile pin point inoculation on the agar and incubated at ambient temperature for 3 days.


literature review of kunu zaki

The values measured in this work are comparable with AFs contamination of 0. Journal of Dairy Science 63 2: Samples were extracted for 90 min on a GFL rotary shaker GFL, Burgwedel, Germany and diluted with the same volume of dilution solvent acetonitrile: National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Literature review of kunu zaki

Other organisms such as Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Penicillium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma sp, and Candida sp present in the food drink if in large quantity could cause the spoilage of kunu beverage Osunto et al.

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literature review of kunu zaki

Further, the incidence of aflatoxins in maize are a perennial threat in warm and humid subtropical and tropical conditions Kaaya and Kyamuhangire, TCT is a toxic tricyclic sesquiterpenoid compound with as a12, epoxy ring and a variable number of hydroxyl or acetyl groups Eriksen rsview al.

And, although breeding has resulted in better nutritional value of sorghum and better flavor, earlier sorghums had higher tannin levels, which caused offensive flavor and was advantageously used as a deterrent to birds.

Literature review of kunu zaki

Nonpharmacologic therapies that reduce blood pressure: Kojic acid was described to be produced by various Aspergillus strains isolated from Egyptian silages El-Shanawany et al. Sensory evaluation The kunun zaki samples were subjected to sensory evaluation for the rrview of appearance, viscosity, aroma, taste, and acceptability. Kunun zaki and tigernut milk were mixed in three different proportions of The nuts were drained, mixed with water ratio 1: